Agriculture
Cleaning Up Fish Farms
Got Milk? How?
Earth-Friendly Fabrics
Amphibians
Salamanders
Salamanders and Newts
Bullfrogs
Animals
Living in the Desert
Bee Heat Cooks Invaders
Elephant Mimics
Behavior
Baby Number Whizzes
The Other Side of the Zoo Fence
Contemplating thought
Birds
Albatrosses
Cassowaries
Flamingos
Chemistry and Materials
A Diamond Polish for Ancient Tools
Mother-of-Pearl on Ice
Diamond Glow
Computers
Lighting goes digital
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
A Classroom of the Mind
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Dino Babies
Some Dinos Dined on Grass
Battling Mastodons
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
Earth
Greener Diet
Earth Rocks On
Surf Watch
Environment
Spotty Survival
Out in the Cold
Swimming with Sharks and Stingrays
Finding the Past
Chicken of the Sea
Stonehenge Settlement
Decoding a Beverage Jar
Fish
Puffer Fish
Basking Sharks
Flashlight Fishes
Food and Nutrition
Yummy bugs
Moving Good Fats from Fish to Mice
Symbols from the Stone Age
GSAT English Rules
Capitalization Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Who vs. That vs. Which
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
How are students placed after passing the GSAT exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Exam Preparation
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
GSAT Mathematics
Math Naturals
Monkeys Count
A Sweet Advance in Candy Packing
Human Body
Remembering Facts and Feelings
Speedy Gene Gives Runners a Boost
Spitting Up Blobs to Get Around
Invertebrates
Octopuses
Spiders
Jellyfish
Mammals
Tasmanian Devil
Grizzly Bear
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Parents
How children learn
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
Children and Media
Physics
Powering Ball Lightning
Speedy stars
Electric Backpack
Plants
Flower family knows its roots
The algae invasion
Farms sprout in cities
Reptiles
Komodo Dragons
Black Mamba
Iguanas
Space and Astronomy
World of Three Suns
Asteroid Moons
An Earthlike Planet
Technology and Engineering
Young Scientists Take Flight
Shape Shifting
Smart Windows
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Robots on the Road, Again
How to Fly Like a Bat
Seen on the Science Fair Scene
Weather
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
A Change in Climate
Add your Article

Underwater Jungles

Thick forests of brown algae, called kelp, cling to the seafloor in cold waters throughout the world. There are about 100 kinds, including giant kelp, which stretch as high as 30 meters (100 feet). Kelp forests support a diversity of creatures, including fish, otters, crabs, and urchins. Scientists have known that scattered bits of kelp grow in the warm tropics in places where cold water wells up from below. Now, an international team of researchers has used worldwide ocean studies to predict and find tropical locations where whole forests of kelp grow. The team recently found kelp forests in deep waters off the Galápagos Islands, about 600 miles west of Ecuador in the Pacific Ocean. What's more, a new computer model predicts that there may be many more of these rich ecosystems in tropical waters around the globe. The model has identified 23,500 square kilometers (9,075 square miles) of tropical ocean hideouts where kelp might be growing. Kelp lives in chilly places because there's extra nitrogen available in cold water that seeps up from ocean's bottom. Nitrogen is an essential nutrient for the algae. Kelp also needs sunlight to grow. Michael Graham of Moss Landing (Calif.) Marine Laboratories and colleagues used recently compiled data about the oceans to look for spots that might meet these conditions. Their model predicted that kelp would grow in all the tropical spots where it had previously been collected. But the team's model also predicted that kelp would be found in an area of the Philippines that almost nobody knew about. The area was mentioned in an old paper—written in Russian—that reported a few kelp specimens in that part of the Philippines. One scientist involved in the new study knew about that spot, but he kept the knowledge secret until after the model had predicted it. In the Galápagos, Graham and colleagues also explored places where the model had predicted kelp forests might grow. The expedition had a rocky start. The first robotic, remotely operated vehicle (ROV) that went underwater came off the line that connected it to the surface. The second ROV, which went down to look for the first one, had an electrical malfunction and lost its ability to "see". So, the scientists had to explore by scuba diving instead. During their first dive, they hit the jackpot. Graham reports that, "I went down, cleared my mask, and there was kelp right in front of me." They found abundant kelp in eight places around the Galápagos. Along with other work, researchers say, the new study points out how much they still have to learn about ecosystems that live in the ocean's depths.—Emily Sohn

Underwater Jungles
Underwater Jungles








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™