Agriculture
Where Have All the Bees Gone?
Springing forward
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Amphibians
Bullfrogs
Newts
Salamanders
Animals
Spotting the World's Leggiest Animal
New Elephant-Shrew
Ant Invasions Change the Rules
Behavior
Calculating crime
Contemplating thought
Reading Body Language
Birds
Rheas
Dodos
Kingfishers
Chemistry and Materials
A New Basketball Gets Slick
Earth from the inside out
Popping to Perfection
Computers
Small but WISE
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
The Earth-bound asteroid scientists saw coming
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Ancient Critter Caught Shedding Its Skin
Ferocious Growth Spurts
Big Fish in Ancient Waters
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Wave of Destruction
Coral Islands Survive a Tsunami
Undersea Vent System Active for Ages
Environment
Sounds and Silence
Flu river
Power of the Wind
Finding the Past
An Ancient Childhood
Prehistoric Trips to the Dentist
The Puzzle of Ancient Mariners
Fish
Angler Fish
Eels
Basking Sharks
Food and Nutrition
The mercury in that tuna
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
A Pepper Part that Burns Fat
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Subject and Verb Agreement
Whoever vs. Whomever
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Scotiabank Jamaica Foundation Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) Scholarships
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Mathematics
Math Naturals
How to Slice a Cake Fairly
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Human Body
What the appendix is good for
Cell Phones and Possible Health Hazards
A Long Haul
Invertebrates
Invertebrates
Scallops
Dust Mites
Mammals
Marmots
Rodents
Pitbulls
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Children and Media
How children learn
Physics
Einstein's Skateboard
Powering Ball Lightning
The Particle Zoo
Plants
A Giant Flower's New Family
Seeds of the Future
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Reptiles
Snapping Turtles
Lizards
Tortoises
Space and Astronomy
Dark Galaxy
Cool as a Jupiter
Rover Makes Splash on Mars
Technology and Engineering
Model Plane Flies the Atlantic
Spinach Power for Solar Cells
Weaving with Light
The Parts of Speech
What is a Verb?
Problems with Prepositions
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Troubles with Hubble
Robots on a Rocky Road
Revving Up Green Machines
Weather
Arctic Melt
The solar system's biggest junkyard
Either Martians or Mars has gas
Add your Article

Toads

Toad can refer to a number of species of amphibians. A distinction is often made between frogs and toads on the basis of their appearance, prompted by the convergent adaptation among so-called toads to dry environments, which often entails a brown skin for camouflage that is also dry and leathery for better water retention. Many so-called toads also burrow, which requires further specific adaptations. However, since these adaptations merely reflect the environment a species has adapted to, they offer no reliable guidance as to what other species it evolved from. Since taxonomy is meant to only reflect these evolutionary relationships, the aforementioned distinction of frogs and toads gives no clue to their classification. For instance, many members of the families Bombinatoridae, Discoglossidae, Pelobatidae, Rhinophrynidae, Scaphiopodidae, and some species from the Microhylidae family are commonly called "toads". However, the only family exclusively given the common name "toad" is Bufonidae, the "true toads". Some "true frogs" of the genus Rana, have also adapted to burrowing habits, while the species within the toad genus Atelopus are conversely known by the common name "harlequin frogs." The type species of the family Bufonidae is the Common Toad, Bufo bufo, and around it cluster a large number of species of the same genus and some smaller genera. B. bufo is a tailless amphibian of stout build with a warty skin and any animal that shares these characteristics is liable to be called a toad, regardless of its location in formal taxonomy. Almost all toads of the family Bufonidae have two lumps on either side of the back of their head, called the parotid glands. These glands contain a poison, which oozes out if the toad is stressed. Some, like Cane Toad Bufo marinus, are more toxic than others. Some "psychoactive toads" such as the Colorado River Toad Bufo alvaris, have been used recreationally for the effects of the bufotoxin, by either smoking their skin secretions or eating boiled toads.

Toads
Toads








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™