Agriculture
Getting the dirt on carbon
Watching out for vultures
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Amphibians
Tree Frogs
Salamanders
Bullfrogs
Animals
Little Beetle, Big Horns
Helping the Cause of Macaws
No Fair: Monkey Sees, Doesn't
Behavior
Chimpanzee Hunting Tools
Copycat Monkeys
Swedish Rhapsody
Birds
Geese
Falcons
Flamingos
Chemistry and Materials
Atom Hauler
Bandages that could bite back
A Framework for Growing Bone
Computers
Supersonic Splash
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
Middle school science adventures
Dinosaurs and Fossils
A Living Fossil
Downsized Dinosaurs
Teeny Skull Reveals Ancient Ancestor
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Challenging the Forces of Nature
Weird, new ant
Giving Sharks Safe Homes
Environment
Fishing for Fun Takes Toll
Spotty Survival
Antarctica warms, which threatens penguins
Finding the Past
A Plankhouse Past
Decoding a Beverage Jar
The Taming of the Cat
Fish
Sharks
Freshwater Fish
A Jellyfish's Blurry View
Food and Nutrition
The Color of Health
Building a Food Pyramid
How Super Are Superfruits?
GSAT English Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
Adjectives and Adverbs
Capitalization Rules
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Mathematics
Math is a real brain bender
Math Naturals
Play for Science
Human Body
Surviving Olympic Heat
Running with Sneaker Science
Tapeworms and Drug Delivery
Invertebrates
Sponges
Camel Spiders
Bees
Mammals
Rodents
Glider
Killer Whales
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
How children learn
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Physics
Spin, Splat, and Scramble
Project Music
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Plants
Surprise Visitor
A Giant Flower's New Family
Making the most of a meal
Reptiles
Geckos
Copperhead Snakes
Garter Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Gravity Tractor as Asteroid Mover
A Family in Space
Older Stars, New Age for the Universe
Technology and Engineering
Shape Shifting
Toy Challenge
Supersuits for Superheroes
The Parts of Speech
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
What is a Preposition?
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Charged cars that would charge
Weather
A Change in Climate
Catching Some Rays
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
Add your Article

The hottest soup in New York

This winter has been a season of breaking records. Last month, athletes at the winter Olympic games in Vancouver broke sports records. A few weeks before that, record-breaking amounts of snow fell on the eastern and southern United States. And on February 15, scientists announced in Washington, D.C., that they had broken another record — for the highest temperature ever reached in a laboratory. That new record is 4 trillion degrees Celsius (that’s 7.2 trillion degrees Fahrenheit). By doing experiments at that temperature, scientists hope to study what happened just after the universe was born. Four trillion degrees Celsius is 250,000 times hotter than the hottest part of the sun, and probably close to the temperature of the universe right after the Big Bang, the birth of the universe.The hot stuff is called a quark-gluon plasma, and scientists found it at the Brookhaven National Laboratory on Long Island, N.Y. Using a giant instrument called the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider, or RHIC, the scientists zoomed two gold atoms through a ring that is 2.4 miles around and smashed the atoms together — and then watched to see what came out. There was so much energy in the crash that the atoms, in a way, melted.As temperatures climb, most solids melt into liquids, and then the liquids become gas. (Some solids may go straight to gas if the conditions are right.) Ice becomes liquid water at 0º Celsius (32º Fahrenheit). At 100º C (212º F), liquid water boils into water vapor. Compared to other substances, water’s melting and boiling points are mild: Tungsten, a material used in light bulbs, doesn’t melt until 3,410º C (6,800º F). That temperature is freezing compared to 4 trillion degrees C. At that temperature, atoms can break apart — and parts inside an atom can break apart — and then the tiny particles inside those parts can break apart. Think of an atom as a set of nesting dolls. When the largest, outer doll breaks apart, there’s another, smaller doll inside. And when that doll breaks apart … surprise! There’s another doll inside. Similarly, at the center of every atom is the nucleus. Inside the nucleus are particles called protons and neutrons. And inside protons and neutrons are even smaller particles called quarks. Quarks are held together thanks to another kind of particle called gluons. (Gluons help to “glue” the particle together.) The hot stuff produced at Brookhaven is a quark-gluon plasma and it spills out like a soup made of quarks and gluons. The quark-gluon plasma is a new type of matter that’s unlike solid, liquid or gas — but it kind of behaves like a liquid. “We are extremely anxious to find out how this works,” Barbara Jacak told Science News. “Why is it a liquid?” Jacak works at Stony Brook University in New York and is one of the scientists working on the project at Brookhaven. She helped take the plasma’s temperature. That was a difficult task because it’s hard to measure things that small. The plasma only existed for about one-trillionth of a trillionth of a second, and it was tiny, about one-trillionth of a centimeter across. It was a very small piece of space that was super hot for a very short amount of time. In other words, you can’t just put a thermometer in it, Jacak says. To take the temperature, the researchers watched it glow. A hot iron rod changes color from red to yellow to white as it heats up. In a similar way, the colors of light coming from the plasma changed. Based on what colors of light the soup emitted, the team figured out that the substance had reached the 4-trillion-degree record. By studying these kinds of super-hot temperatures, scientists hope to learn more about how the universe formed. The quark-gluon plasma may look a lot like the hot and heavy goo that existed in the universe right after the Big Bang. Experiments such as those at Brookhaven may help us understand what happened at the very beginning of the universe. But there’s a lot of work to be done, says scientist Chris Quigg of the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Ill. “These are very early days,” he told Science News. “Like many good observations, this opens up many questions.”

The hottest soup in New York
The hottest soup in New York








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™