Agriculture
Treating peanut allergy bit by bit
Getting the dirt on carbon
Cleaning Up Fish Farms
Amphibians
Poison Dart Frogs
Salamanders and Newts
Bullfrogs
Animals
Ants on Stilts
Vampire Bats on the Run
Chicken Talk
Behavior
Two monkeys see a more colorful world
Pondering the puzzling platypus
The nerve of one animal
Birds
Crows
Carnivorous Birds
Dodos
Chemistry and Materials
Diamond Glow
Silk’s superpowers
Boosting Fuel Cells
Computers
Batteries built by Viruses
A New Look at Saturn's rings
The Shape of the Internet
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Message in a dinosaur's teeth
The Paleontologist and the Three Dinosaurs
Mini T. rex
E Learning Jamaica
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Earth
Getting the dirt on carbon
Less Mixing Can Affect Lake's Ecosystem
A Volcano Wakes Up
Environment
Food Web Woes
Indoor ozone stopper
Forests as a Tsunami Shield
Finding the Past
Stonehenge Settlement
Stone Tablet May Solve Maya Mystery
Preserving Ancient Warrior Paint
Fish
Mako Sharks
Barracudas
Sharks
Food and Nutrition
The mercury in that tuna
Eat Out, Eat Smart
Turning to Sweets, Fats to Calm the Brain
GSAT English Rules
Problems with Prepositions
Capitalization Rules
Who vs. Whom
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
How are students placed after passing the GSAT exam
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
GSAT Mathematics
Math Naturals
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
How a Venus Flytrap Snaps Shut
Human Body
Taste Messenger
What the appendix is good for
Spitting Up Blobs to Get Around
Invertebrates
Fleas
Krill
Bedbugs
Mammals
Basset Hounds
Dalmatians
Mongooses
Parents
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
Road Bumps
One ring around them all
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Plants
Springing forward
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Making the most of a meal
Reptiles
Black Mamba
Asp
Sea Turtles
Space and Astronomy
A Dead Star's Dusty Ring
Killers from Outer Space
The two faces of Mars
Technology and Engineering
Supersuits for Superheroes
Algae Motors
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
The Parts of Speech
Pronouns
What is a Verb?
What is a Noun
Transportation
Ready, unplug, drive
Revving Up Green Machines
Robots on the Road, Again
Weather
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Where rivers run uphill
Arctic Melt
Add your Article

Penguins

Penguins (order Sphenisciformes, family Spheniscidae) are an order of aquatic, flightless birds living in the Southern Hemisphere. The number of species has been and still is a matter of debate. The numbers of penguin species listed in the literature vary between 16 and 19 species. Weights and Measures: The largest species is the Emperor Penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri): adults average about 1.1 m (3 ft 7 in) tall and weigh 35 kg (75 lb) or more. The smallest penguin species is the Little Blue Penguin (also known as the Fairy Penguin), which stands around 40 cm tall (16 in) and weighs 1 kg (2.2 lb). Generally larger penguins retain heat better, and thus inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are found in temperate or even tropical climates. Hot and Cold: Although all penguin species are native to the southern hemisphere, they are not, contrary to popular belief, found only in cold climates, such as Antarctica. In fact, only a few species of penguin actually live so far south. Three species live in the tropics; one lives as far north as the Galápagos Islands (the Galápagos Penguin) and will occasionally cross the equator while feeding. Penguin Prey: Most penguins feed on krill, fish, squid, and other forms of sea life caught while swimming underwater. They spend half of their life on land and half in the oceans. Kidnappers: When mothers lose a chick, they sometimes attempt to steal another mother's chick, usually unsuccessfully as other females in the vicinity assist the defending mother in keeping her chick. Fearless and Feathered: Penguins seem to have no fear of humans, and have approached groups of explorers without hesitation. Brave Breeders: Emperor Penguins (the largest penguins) first begin to breed at approximately five years of age. Emperor penguins travel about 90 km inland to reach the breeding site. In March or April, the penguins start courtship, when the temperature can be as low as -40 degrees C (-40°F). Annual Attachment: Emperor penguins are serially monogamous. They have only one mate each year, and keep faithfully to that one other penguin, but each year, most choose different mates. Penguin Parenting: In May or June, the female penguin lays one 450-gram (1 pound) egg, but at this point her nutritional reserves are exhausted and she must immediately return to the sea to feed. Very carefully, she transfers the egg to the male penguin, who will incubate the egg in his brood pouch for about 65 days consecutively without food by surviving on his fat reserves and spending the majority of the time sleeping to conserve energy. To survive the cold and wind (up to 200 km per hour, or 120 mph), the males huddle together, taking turns in the middle of the huddle. If the chick hatches before the mother's return, the father sits the chick on his feet and covers it with his pouch, feeding it a white milky substance produced by a gland in his esophagus. After about two months, the female returns. She finds her mate among the hundreds of fathers via his call and takes over caring for the chick, feeding it by regurgitating the food that she has stored in her stomach. The male then leaves to take his turn at sea. After another few weeks, the male returns and both parents tend to the chick by keeping it off the ice and feeding it food from their stomachs. About two months after the egg hatches, as the weather becomes milder, the chicks huddle in a crèche for warmth and protection, still fed by their parents using the food from their stomachs. Species Speculation: The number of extant species has been and still is a matter of debate. The numbers of penguin species listed in the literature vary between 16 and 19 species. Some sources consider the White-Flippered Penguin a separate Eudyptula species, although today it is generally considered a subspecies of the Little Penguin (e.g. Williams, 1995; Davis & Renner, 2003). Similarly, it is still unclear whether the Royal Penguin is merely a colour morph of the Macaroni penguin. Also possibly eligible to be treated as a separate species is the Northern population of Rockhopper penguins (Davis & Renner, 2003). Penguin Evolution: The evolutionary history of penguins is poorly understood, as penguin fossils are rare. The oldest known fossil penguin species are the Waimanu, which lived in the early Paleocene epoch of New Zealand, about 62 million years ago. While they were not as well adapted to aquatic life as modern penguins (which first emerged in the Eocene epoch 40 million years ago), Waimanu were flightless and loon-like, with short wings adapted for deep diving. These fossils prove that prehistoric penguins were already flightless and seagoing, so their origins probably reach as far back as 65 million years ago, before the extinction of the dinosaurs. Penguin ancestry beyond Waimanu is not well known, though some scientists (Mayr, 2005) think the penguin-like plotopterids (usually considered relatives of anhingas and cormorants) may actually be an early sister group of the penguins, and that penguins may have ultimately shared a common ancestor with the Pelecaniformes.

Penguins
Penguins








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™