Agriculture
Growing Healthier Tomato Plants
Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Silk’s superpowers
Amphibians
Newts
Toads
Frogs and Toads
Animals
Cannibal Crickets
Roach Love Songs
How to Fly Like a Bat
Behavior
Surprise Visitor
Honeybees do the wave
Pipefish power from mom
Birds
Hawks
Falcons
Swans
Chemistry and Materials
Atomic Drive
Cooking Up Superhard Diamonds
A Diamond Polish for Ancient Tools
Computers
Batteries built by Viruses
Nonstop Robot
Electronic Paper Turns a Page
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Hall of Dinos
Fingerprinting Fossils
Mini T. rex
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Hot Summers, Wild Fires
Warmest Year on Record
Slip Slidin' Away—Under the Sea
Environment
Bald Eagles Forever
The Best Defense Is a Good Snow Fence
Hazy with a Chance of Sunshine
Finding the Past
Fakes in the museum
Watching deep-space fireworks
Little People Cause Big Surprise
Fish
Carp
Freshwater Fish
Catfish
Food and Nutrition
Strong Bones for Life
Food for Life
The Essence of Celery
GSAT English Rules
Adjectives and Adverbs
Problems with Prepositions
Capitalization Rules
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Practice Papers | GSAT Mathematics | Maths
Scotiabank Jamaica Foundation Grade Six Achievement Test (GSAT) Scholarships
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
GSAT Exam Preparation
GSAT Mathematics
Math of the World
Losing with Heads or Tails
It's a Math World for Animals
Human Body
Remembering Facts and Feelings
Music in the Brain
Dreaming makes perfect
Invertebrates
Sponges
Earthworms
Roundworms
Mammals
Miniature Schnauzers
African Gorillas
Scottish Folds
Parents
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Physics
Extra Strings for New Sounds
Hold on to your stars, ladies and gentlemen
Project Music
Plants
Farms sprout in cities
Assembling the Tree of Life
City Trees Beat Country Trees
Reptiles
Gila Monsters
Tortoises
Lizards
Space and Astronomy
Black Holes That Burp
Mercury's magnetic twisters
Pluto, plutoid: What's in a name?
Technology and Engineering
Spinach Power for Solar Cells
Bionic Bacteria
Algae Motors
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Problems with Prepositions
Transportation
Tinkering With the Basic Bike
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Where rivers run uphill
Weather
Earth's Poles in Peril
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Recipe for a Hurricane
Add your Article

Manta Rays

The manta ray, or giant manta (Manta birostris), is the largest of the rays, ranging up to 6.7 meters (22 ft) across its pectoral fins (or "wings") and weighing up to 1,350 kg (3,000 lb). It ranges throughout the tropical seas of the world, typically around coral reefs. Mantas are most commonly black above and white below, but some are blue on their backs. A giant manta's eyes are located at the base of the cephalic fins on each side of the head, and unlike other rays the mouth is found at the anterior edge of its head. To breathe, the manta has like other rays five pair of gills on the underside. With distinctive "horns", or "cephalic fins", on either side of its broad head, the manta is a prized sighting by divers. These unique horns are actually structures made by the pectoral fins where a part breaks off during the embryological stage and moves foreward and surrounds the mouth, which makes them the only known example where jawed vertebrates have evolved novel limbs (the so-called six-footed tortoise (Manouria emys) has of course not actually six legs, only enlarged tuberculate scales present on their thighs that looks a bit like an extra pair of hind limbs). These flexible horns are also called cephalic fins and are used to direct plankton and water into their very broad and wide mouth. To make them more streamlined when swimming, they are able to curl them up. They evolved from bottom feeders a long time ago, but later adapted to become filter feeders in the open ocean. This has allowed them to grow to a size larger than any other species of rays. Because of their pelagic lifestyle as plankton feeders, some characterstics have been degenerated. All that is left of their oral teeth is a small band of vestigial teeth on the lower jaw, almost hidden by the skin. They are closely related to stingrays, but they don't have any stinger. Also their dermal denticals are greatly reduced in number and size, but are still present, and they have a much thicker body mucus coating than other rays. Their spiracles have become small and non-functional, all the water is taken in through their mouth instead. To better swim through the ocean, they have evolved a diamond shaped body plan, using their pectoral fins as graceful "wings". Mantas generally eat plankton, fish larvae and small organisms that are filtered out from the water by their gill rakers, a type of filter feeding that is called ram-jet feeding. Taxonomically, the situation of the mantas is still under investigation. Three species have been identified: Manta birostris, Manta ehrenbergii, and Manta raya, but they are quite similar to each other, and the last two may just be isolated populations. The genus Manta is sometimes placed in its own family, Mobulidae, but this article follows FishBase, and places it in the family Myliobatidae, with the eagle rays and their relatives. Mantas have been given a variety of common names, including Atlantic manta, Pacific manta, devil ray, devilfish, and just manta. Some people just call all members of the family stingrays. Mantas have recently been captured on film while breaching. This had been reported in the past, but without any conclusive evidence. In the last few years, sharks have also been photographed while leaping out of the water. As with sharks, the reason for this behavior in rays is currently unknown, though may be to dislodge loose dead skin & parasites when impacting back on the water.

Manta Rays
Manta Rays








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™