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Keeping Bugs Away from Food
Watering the Air
Tree Frogs
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How to Fly Like a Bat
A Jellyfish's Blurry View
Supersonic Splash
Homework blues
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Carnivorous Birds
Chemistry and Materials
Sticking Around with Gecko Tape
Mother-of-Pearl on Ice
The metal detector in your mouth
Galaxies far, far, far away
Lighting goes digital
Games with a Purpose
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Downsized Dinosaurs
Supersight for a Dino King
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2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
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Killer Space Rock Snuffed Out Ancient Life
Detecting an Eerie Sea Glow
Earth's Lowly Rumble
The Down Side of Keeping Clean
A Newspaper's Hidden Cost
Flu river
Finding the Past
Big Woman of the Distant Past
A Long Trek to Asia
Salt and Early Civilization
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How Super Are Superfruits?
Strong Bones for Life
Recipe for Health
GSAT English Rules
Subject and Verb Agreement
Who vs. That vs. Which
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
The Annual GSAT Scholarships
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GSAT Mathematics
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Math Naturals
Math of the World
Human Body
From Stem Cell to Any Cell
Germ Zapper
Gut Germs to the Rescue
Sea Anemones
African Ostrich
What Not to Say to Emerging Readers
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
How children learn
Powering Ball Lightning
Speedy stars
Gaining a Swift Lift
Cactus Goo for Clean Water
Fastest Plant on Earth
A Giant Flower's New Family
Copperhead Snakes
Space and Astronomy
Slip-sliding away
Supernovas Shed Light on Dark Energy
Dark Galaxy
Technology and Engineering
Squeezing Oil from Old Wells
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Slip Sliming Away
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
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Troubles with Hubble
Flying the Hyper Skies
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Warmest Year on Record
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Lungfishes are sarcopterygian fish belonging to the order Dipnoi. Sarcopterygii (from Greek sarx, flesh, and pteryx, fin) are bony fish with paired rounded fins. These fins, being similar to limbs, suggest that these fish may be ancestors of land vertebrates. The dentition of lungfish is conspicuously different from that of any other vertebrate group. Odontodes on the palate and lower jaws develop in a series of rows to form a fan-shaped occlusion surface. These odontodes then wear to form a uniform crushing surface. In several groups, including the modern lepidosireniformes, these ridges have been modified to form occluding blades. The modern lungfishes have a number of larval features, which suggest paedomorphosis. They also demonstrate the largest genome among the vertebrates. Modern lungfish all have an elongate body with fleshy paired pectoral and pelvic fins and a single unpaired caudal fin replacing the dorsal, caudal, and anal fin of most fishes. African and South American lungfish are capable of surviving seasonal drouts by burrowing into mud and estivating throughout the dry season. Changes in physiology allow the lungfish to slow its metabolism to 1/60th of the normal metabolic rate, and protein waste is converted from ammonia to less-toxic urea (normally, lungfish excrete nitrogenous waste as ammonia directly into the water). Burrowing is seen in at least one group of fossil lungfish, the Gnathorhizidae. Lungfish are best-known for retaining characteristics primitive within the Osteichthyes, including the ability to breathe air, and structures primitive within Sarcopterygii, including the presence of lobed fins with a well-developed internal skeleton. Today, they live only in Africa, South America, and Australia. While vicariance would suggest this represents an ancient distribution limited to the Mesozoic supercontinent Gondwana, the fossil record suggests that advanced lungfish had a cosmopolitan freshwater distribution and that the current distribution of modern lungfish species reflects extinction of many lineages following the breakup of both Pangea and subsequently Gondwana and Laurasia.


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