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Making the most of a meal
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Salamanders and Newts
Poison Dart Frogs
Polly Shouldn't Get a Cracker
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Video Game Violence
Lightening Your Mood
The Smell of Trust
Chemistry and Materials
Atom Hauler
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A Light Delay
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Dinosaurs and Fossils
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Blooming Jellies
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Finding the Past
An Ancient Childhood
A Long Haul
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Freshwater Fish
Food and Nutrition
In Search of the Perfect French Fry
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Human Body
Cell Phone Tattlers
Heart Revival
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Hermit Crabs
Weasels and Kin
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Road Bumps
Dreams of Floating in Space
Powering Ball Lightning
White fuzzy mold not as friendly as it looks
Underwater Jungles
Sweet, Sticky Science
Copperhead Snakes
Black Mamba
Space and Astronomy
Cousin Earth
A Family in Space
Saturn's New Moons
Technology and Engineering
Supersuits for Superheroes
Toy Challenge
Musclebots Take Some Steps
The Parts of Speech
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
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Reach for the Sky
Revving Up Green Machines
Troubles with Hubble
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Recipe for a Hurricane
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
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Hints of Life in Ancient Lava

When you hear the word "lava," your first thought might be of volcanoes violently spewing molten rock. Lava is full of surprises, though. Scientists now say they have found old lava that contains some of the earliest traces of life on Earth. Researchers from Norway and Canada dug lava samples out of rocks in South Africa. The samples are between 3.48 and 3.22 billion years old. Back then, oceans covered the areas where the samples were obtained. The lava probably oozed out onto the ocean floor when two plates of Earth's crust moved apart. When that happens, water quickly cools and hardens the ooze into rounded formations called pillow lava. Marine microorganisms soon settle in, feeding off of chemical energy in the lava. One sign that tiny critters may have lived in the South African samples showed up under the microscope. In the outermost centimeter of lava, the researchers saw tiny tubular structures amazingly similar to those formed by microbes today. X-ray analysis of different types of carbon atoms inside the tubes also suggested the long-ago presence of life. It's exciting to find that signs of microbe life on the ocean floor could have survived for billions of years, scientists say. Incredibly, ancient life may have left trails for us to track.E. Sohn

Hints of Life in Ancient Lava
Hints of Life in Ancient Lava

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