Agriculture
Earth-Friendly Fabrics
New Gene Fights Potato Blight
Middle school science adventures
Amphibians
Toads
Salamanders and Newts
Poison Dart Frogs
Animals
Copybees
Sea Lilies on the Run
Cannibal Crickets
Behavior
Diving, Rolling, and Floating, Alligator Style
Hitting the redo button on evolution
Mice sense each other's fear
Birds
Nightingales
Crows
Finches
Chemistry and Materials
Salt secrets
The hottest soup in New York
Silk’s superpowers
Computers
Supersonic Splash
Batteries built by Viruses
Music of the Future
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Meet your mysterious relative
The Paleontologist and the Three Dinosaurs
Meet the new dinos
E Learning Jamaica
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Earth's Poles in Peril
Undersea Vent System Active for Ages
Groundwater and the Water Cycle
Environment
Giant snakes invading North America
Ready, unplug, drive
Bald Eagles Forever
Finding the Past
Sahara Cemetery
Little People Cause Big Surprise
Salt and Early Civilization
Fish
Whale Sharks
Sting Ray
Great White Shark
Food and Nutrition
Allergies: From Bee Stings to Peanuts
Sponges' secret weapon
The mercury in that tuna
GSAT English Rules
Adjectives and Adverbs
Who vs. That vs. Which
Finding Subjects and Verbs
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
GSAT Scholarship
Access denied - Disabled boy aces GSAT
GSAT Mathematics
Play for Science
Setting a Prime Number Record
Losing with Heads or Tails
Human Body
Hey batter, wake up!
Disease Detectives
A Sour Taste in Your Mouth
Invertebrates
Invertebrates
Corals
Hermit Crabs
Mammals
African Camels
Dolphins
Doberman Pinschers
Parents
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
Expert report highlights the importance to parents of reading to children!
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
Physics
Dreams of Floating in Space
Electric Backpack
Einstein's Skateboard
Plants
Getting the dirt on carbon
Assembling the Tree of Life
A Giant Flower's New Family
Reptiles
Chameleons
Snapping Turtles
Sea Turtles
Space and Astronomy
Holes in Martian moon mystery
Solving a Sedna Mystery
Planet Hunters Nab Three More
Technology and Engineering
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Switchable Lenses Improve Vision
Space Umbrellas to Shield Earth
The Parts of Speech
Adjectives and Adverbs
Problems with Prepositions
What is a Verb?
Transportation
Troubles with Hubble
Where rivers run uphill
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Weather
Arctic Melt
Warmest Year on Record
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Add your Article

Flu river

What if the solution to one problem causes other problems down the road? That may be the case in the ongoing struggle to fight the flu. Flu season is almost here, which means more and more people may be taking Tamiflu in the months ahead. Tamiflu is a popular anti-flu drug that treats both seasonal flu strains and the new H1N1 flu, an unpredictable disease better known as swine flu. But this increased use of Tamiflu may be introducing new problems. A team of Japanese scientists recently studied three rivers in Japan and found them to be contaminated with Tamiflu’s active ingredient, oseltamivir carboxylate or OC. They found the same contamination in the water discharged from local sewage plants, water that ends up in those rivers. People excreted the drug in their urine, and water discharged from the sewage plants carried it to the rivers. Sewage treatment plants are designed to remove germs and solids from the wastes dispensed by household toilets, but many drugs can get through. OC is one of those escaping drugs. OC in the water may be a serious problem for birds — and for people. Here’s why: The flu, short for influenza, is caused by a virus, a tiny organism that invades living cells and turns them against the body. There is not one flu-causing virus; there are many. These many viruses are constantly evolving, or changing in order to survive. They find new ways to infect people and animals, and every year new kinds of flu show up. Birds are natural carriers of many flu-causing viruses. If a bird drinks water polluted with OC, that bird may be able to fight off the types of flu that Tamiflu treats. As a result, new flus — flus that can’t be cured by Tamiflu — may start to develop in the bird. Once a drug-resistant flu grows in the bird, that bird can pass it on to other animals. This new, stronger flu could eventually start infecting people. And that could mean big trouble, since Tamiflu would not help people fight this stronger flu.. The Japanese study was led by Gopal Ghosh, a scientist at Kyoto University. Ghosh and his team collected water from two places: sewage treatment plants and the rivers that carried away the treated wastewater dispensed by the plants. They first collected samples in December of last year, when the flu season was starting. They collected more water samples in February, when the flu was bad, and collected a third set of samples later. The scientists found OC in the sewage samples every time. They found a higher concentration in the second set of samples, from February. That’s when the flu was at its worst, and 1,738 cases were recorded in Kyoto. At the same time, in the second set of samples taken in February, the scientists found OC in the river water as well. The OC did not show up in the river in the first and third set of samples. Scientists have known for years that sewage treatment plants do not remove OC from the water. Jerker Fick, an environmental chemist at Umeå University in Sweden, published a study two years ago that showed that most water treatment plants removed “zero percent” — or none — of the OC. In fact, Fick says, almost all the Tamiflu ingested by a human being will end up in the environment as OC. And when the OC comes out of the sewage treatment plants, the birds will be ready. Ducks, for example, love to swim in the warm waters just downstream of those plants during the coldest months — during flu season. “I saw it myself,” Fick says.

Flu river
Flu river








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™