Agriculture
Protecting Cows—and People—from a Deadly Disease
Getting the dirt on carbon
Vitamin D-licious Mushrooms
Amphibians
Toads
Salamanders and Newts
Newts
Animals
Walks on the Wild Side
Ant Invasions Change the Rules
Clone Wars
Behavior
The Electric Brain
The Colorful World of Synesthesia
Dino-bite!
Birds
Turkeys
Eagles
Cardinals
Chemistry and Materials
A Light Delay
Makeup Science
When frog gender flips
Computers
Small but WISE
Programming with Alice
It's a Small E-mail World After All
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Battling Mastodons
Dinosaurs Grow Up
Downsized Dinosaurs
E Learning Jamaica
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Earth
Killer Space Rock Snuffed Out Ancient Life
Deep Drilling at Sea
Coral Gardens
Environment
Flu river
Little Bits of Trouble
The Wolf and the Cow
Finding the Past
Ancient Art on the Rocks
Settling the Americas
Chicken of the Sea
Fish
Trout
Saltwater Fish
Salmon
Food and Nutrition
Building a Food Pyramid
A Taste for Cheese
Food for Life
GSAT English Rules
Whoever vs. Whomever
Finding Subjects and Verbs
Who vs. That vs. Which
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT Exam Preparation
March 21-22, 2013: Over 43,000 students will take the GSAT Exam
Preparing for the GSAT Exam
GSAT Exams Jamaica Scholarships
Results of GSAT are in schools this week
2014 GSAT Results for Jamaican Kids
42,000 students will sit for the GSAT Exam in two weeks
GSAT Mathematics
Math and our number sense: PassGSAT.com
Math Naturals
E Learning in Jamaica WIN PRIZES and try our Fun Animated Games
Human Body
Hey batter, wake up!
Spit Power
Taste Messenger
Invertebrates
Leeches
Grasshoppers
Starfish
Mammals
Koalas
Deers
Gerbils
Parents
Children and Media
Choosing a Preschool: What to Consider
How children learn
Physics
Einstein's Skateboard
Electric Backpack
The Pressure of Scuba Diving
Plants
Surprise Visitor
When Fungi and Algae Marry
Farms sprout in cities
Reptiles
Alligators
Garter Snakes
Anacondas
Space and Astronomy
Solving a Sedna Mystery
Icy Red Planet
A Whole Lot of Nothing
Technology and Engineering
Searching for Alien Life
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Dancing with Robots
The Parts of Speech
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Problems with Prepositions
Adjectives and Adverbs
Transportation
Are Propellers Fin-ished?
Morphing a Wing to Save Fuel
Robots on a Rocky Road
Weather
Weekend Weather Really Is Different
Science loses out when ice caps melt
Earth's Poles in Peril
Add your Article

Chameleons

Chameleons are known for their ability to change their color, their elongated, sticky tongue, and for their eyes which can be moved independently of each other. The name "chameleon" means "earth lion" and is derived from the Greek words chamai (on the ground, on the earth) and leon (lion). Sizes and Scales: Chameleons vary greatly in size and body structure, from the less than 4" Brookesia species, to the 24" Calumma parsonii. There is even one species, thought to be unique to Malawi's Mount Mulanje, that is barely 1.5cm across when fully grown. Festive Faces: Many have head or facial ornamentation, be it nasal protrusions or even horn-like projections in the case of Chamaeleo jacksonii, or large crests on top of their head, like Chamaeleo calyptratus. Sizes and Sexes: Many species are sexually dimorphic, and males are typically much more ornamented than the females. Eyes, Tongue, Ears, and Toes: The main things chameleon species do have in common is their foot structure, their eyes, their lack of ears, and their tongue. Divided Digits: Chameleons have feet that are split into two main "fingers", with a soft pad in between. These "fingers" are equipped with sharp claws to gain traction on surfaces such as bark when climbing. An interesting fact about chameleons is that they have two claws on the outside of their front foot and three on the inside, yet on the back foot this is reversed. Incredible Eyes: Their eyes are the most distinctive among the reptiles. The upper and lower eyelids are joined, with only a pinhole large enough for the pupil to see through. They can rotate and focus separately to observe two different objects simultaneously. It in effect gives them a full 360 degree arc of vision around their body. When prey is located, both eyes can be focused in the same direction, giving sharp stereoscopic vision and depth perception. Hard of Hearing: They lack a vomeronasal organ. Like snakes, they don't have an outer or a middle ear and seem to be deaf; at least they cannot detect airborne sounds. But some, maybe all, can communicate via vibrations that travel through solid material like branches. Tons of Tongue: Chameleons have incredibly long tongues (sometimes longer than their own body length) which they are capable of extending out of the mouth at a rapid rate. It has a sticky tip on the end which serves to catch prey items that they would otherwise never be able to reach with their lack of locomotive speed. The tongue's tip is a bulbous ball of muscle, and as it hits its prey, the tongue rapidly forms a small suction cup. Once the tongue sticks to a prey item, it is drawn quickly back into the mouth, where the chameleon's strong jaws crush it and it is consumed. Even a small chameleon is capable of eating a large locust or mantis. Where in the World? The main distribution of chameleons is Africa and Madagascar, and other tropical regions, although some species are also found in parts of southern Europe, Sri Lanka, India and Asia Minor. There are introduced, feral populations of veiled and Jackson's chameleons in Hawaii and isolated pockets of feral Jackson's chameleons have been reported in California and Florida. All in the Family: Different members of this family inhabit all kinds of biotopes like tropical and montane rain forests, savannas and sometimes semi-deserts and steppes. Chameleons are mostly arboreal and are often found in trees or occasionally on smaller bushes. Some smaller species, however, live on the ground under foliage. The chameleon is "battling" humans for their space and habitat. What's for Dinner? Chameleons generally eat locusts, mantids, crickets, and other insects, but larger chameleons have been known to eat small birds. However, contrary to popular belief, most full grown chameleons tend not to eat flies. A few species, such as Chamaeleo calyptratus have been known to consume small amounts of plant matter. Chameleons prefer running water to still water. Color Communication: Some chameleon species are able to change their body color, which has made them one of the most famous lizard families. Contrary to popular belief, this change of color is not purely an adaptation to the surroundings (although the surroundings play a large part) but also an expression of the physical and physiological condition of the lizard. The skin color is changed under influence of mood, light, and temperature. The skin color also plays an important part in communication and rivalry fights. Color Decoded: Chameleons have specialized cells, collectively called chromatophores, that lie in layers under their transparent outer skin. The cells in the upper layer, called xanthophores and erythrophores, contain yellow and red pigments respectively. Below these is another layer of cells called iridophores (or guanophores), and they contain the colorless crystalline substance guanine. These reflect amongst others the blue part of incident light. If the upper layer of chromatophores appear mainly yellow, the reflected light becomes green (blue plus yellow). A layer of dark melanin containing melanophores is situated even deeper under the reflective iridophores. The melanophores influence the 'lightness' of the reflected light. All these different pigment cells can rapidly relocate their pigments, thereby influencing the color of the chameleon. Birds and Bees: Most chameleons lay eggs, which lie buried for up to 9 months before hatching. Newborn chameleons are surprisingly independent, due to the fact that their parents will have moved away from the clutch long before its hatching. Some species, like Chameleo jacksonii give live birth. Clutch size varies greatly between species, smaller chameleons typically have smaller litters. The young grows on its own.

Chameleons
Chameleons








Designed and Powered by HBJamaica.com™