Agriculture
Fast-flying fungal spores
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Chicken Eggs as Drug Factories
Amphibians
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Salamanders
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Firefly Delight
New Mammals
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Bringing fish back up to size
Making light of sleep
Mosquito duets
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Chemistry and Materials
Picture the Smell
A Butterfly's Electric Glow
The hungry blob at the edge of the universe
Computers
Graphene's superstrength
It's a Small E-mail World After All
The Earth-bound asteroid scientists saw coming
Dinosaurs and Fossils
Watery Fate for Nature's Gliders
Message in a dinosaur's teeth
Meet your mysterious relative
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Earth
Bugs with Gas
Life trapped under a glacier
A Volcano's Deadly Ash
Environment
Eating Up Foul Sewage Smells
A Change in Leaf Color
Whale Watch
Finding the Past
If Only Bones Could Speak
Salt and Early Civilization
A Plankhouse Past
Fish
A Grim Future for Some Killer Whales
Parrotfish
Seahorses
Food and Nutrition
The Color of Health
Food for Life
Eat Out, Eat Smart
GSAT English Rules
Pronouns
Problems with Prepositions
Order of Adjectives
GSAT Exam Preparation Jamaica
GSAT stars reap scholarship glory
Tarrant High overcoming the odds
10 Common Mistakes When Preparing for the GSAT Math Test
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Human Body
From Stem Cell to Any Cell
Gut Microbes and Weight
Surviving Olympic Heat
Invertebrates
Beetles
Spiders
Worms
Mammals
Cows
Yorkshire Terriers
Echidnas
Parents
The Surprising Meaning and Benefits of Nursery Rhymes
How children learn
Raise a Lifelong Reader by Reading Aloud
Physics
Echoes of a Stretched Egg
Gaining a Swift Lift
Powering Ball Lightning
Plants
Underwater Jungles
Fast-flying fungal spores
Springing forward
Reptiles
Gila Monsters
Crocodiles
Cobras
Space and Astronomy
Tossing Out a Black Hole Life Preserver
A Planet from the Early Universe
A Darker, Warmer Red Planet
Technology and Engineering
A Micro-Dose of Your Own Medicine
Weaving with Light
Roll-Up Computer Monitors to Go
The Parts of Speech
What is a Noun
Pronouns
Countable and Uncountable Nouns
Transportation
Reach for the Sky
Middle school science adventures
Where rivers run uphill
Weather
Warmest Year on Record
In Antarctica watch the heat (and your step)
Polar Ice Feels the Heat
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Awake at Night

The less sleep I get, the unhappier I become. When I'm really tired, I have trouble concentrating. I can't get any work done. I get cranky and irritable, and everything starts to annoy me. I know lots of people just like me, but I also have friends who can stay up all night and still seem chipper the next day. How well do you fare after a slumber-less sleepover? Scientists have been studying sleep for decades, but they still know very little about the genes involved. Genes are stretches of DNA found within every cell. They direct all sorts of processes in the body. Sleep researchers from the University of Wisconsin–Madison decided to focus on certain fruit flies (called Drosophila melanogaster) because their genes are easy to study and similar to ours. Fruit flies also sleep a lot, typically 9 to 15 hours a day. A sleeping fly looks like it's just sitting still. You can't hear the snores. The researchers collected more than 9,000 groups of fruit flies. Each group had a different set of genes. The scientists then observed several flies of each type to see how many hours a day the insects slept and how they behaved after being kept awake for 24 hours. One group of flies proved to be the most interesting. Named minisleep flies, they slept only 4 to 5 hours a day. Even after 24 hours without sleep, they did just as well on reaction tests as rested flies did. Normal sleep-deprived flies were much slower to react. After a series of tests, the scientists discovered one mutation in a single gene in the minisleep flies. As a result, these flies have nerves that appear to get excited easily. It's possible that people who don't need much sleep have a similar mutation. In every other way, minisleep flies seemed normal—except one. Most fruit flies live for about 3 or 4 months. The minisleepers lived about 2 weeks less. So, even if you feel fine on little sleep, the researchers say, skimping on sleep might affect your health in other ways. Knowing that, I'm going to make sure to sleep in tomorrow. If nothing else, I'll be a lot more pleasant to be around.—E. Sohn

Awake at Night
Awake at Night








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